11th January, 2016 (MAINS)


Q1. Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present? [12.5marks/2015/GS-1] 200 words.

Please write answer in the comments section.

  • Kamlesh Twari

    Industrial revolution first occurred in England because:
    •England developed a large shipping industry and had no problem of transportation.
    •England had plenty of natural resources, such as iron and coal, essential for industries.
    •England had acquired colonies which ensured a regular supply of raw materials.
    •England had accumulated vast profits through overseas trade, including trade in slaves, which could provide the necessary capital.

    The quality of life of the people there during the industrialization:
    •Children were preferred workers because they worked for lower wages.
    •Safety was very poor in early industrial factories and mines and there was no injury compensation for the workers as well.
    •Diseases and cancer were the most common health issues that had long-term effects to the workers.
    •Housing for the workers were overcrowded and unclean, making it suitable for the hazards of typhoid, cholera, and smallpox.

    Comparison with present India:
    •Child labour problem is prevalent in India similar to British industrial revolution though a number of laws have been enacted to curb the same.
    •Overtime is a norm in Indian industries and most local companies do not compensate their workers for it similar to industrial revolution in England.
    •The government has been operating subsidized industrial housing schemes so as to provide affordable and good quality houses to the industrial workers but majority of Indian industrial workers live in unhygienic, crowded and unsafe conditions vulnerable to infectious diseases.

    • http://shashidthakur23.blog.com Shashi Thakur

      nice try…

  • DVM

    Industrial revolution is a process by the means of which there is ultimate increase in the mechanization which leads to large scale production of goods. With the advent of the Printing Press and with the emergence of the revolution process in the European countries the era of backwardness and orthodoxy got sublimed under the process of Imperialism and Industrial revolution. The people in the European countries started to question the supremacy of church and more emphasis is been given to the scientific learning. below are the some of the reasons for starting of Industrial Revolution in England :

    1. The presence of the Democratic structure with the ultimate power lies in the hands of parliament and Monarch as it’s hereditary and Rubber stamp head.
    2. The invention of steam engine by the James watt which reduced the number of hands required drastically and also leads to the development of Steam ships and railways which also reduced the time required for transport and communication.
    3. The availability of required workforce due to process of urbanization as more and more people started to migrate to cities in the search of better opportunities.
    4. Availability of Markets due to rise in Imperialism as majority of the colonies in Asia, Africa and American continents were captured by the British Government which also provides the raw material to the factories in England.
    5. The Invention of telegram system which help in better communication.
    6. The superior Naval strength provide British government the hold over the majority trade routes which helped in reduction of Piracy and ship accident caused due to rivalry between different European countries and also helped in Moving British army from one place to another with much ease at the time of need etc.

    The people In the Britain at the time of Industrial revolution passed through various phases of Demographic Transition, Due to presence of Capitalistic form of society the several people got immensely benefited from this process but the worker class suffered through below problems:
    1. Increase in Slum development in Different cities due to exponential rise in the Population.
    2. Spread of disease due to unhygienic living condition.
    3. Created law and order situation due to increase in the Rate of Unemployment due to increase in mechanization process.
    4. The condition of Labour got deteriorate due to increased work hours, hazardous working condition,reduced pay with the increase in the rate of Inflation.
    5. With the increase in rivalry between the different European countries to increase its clout and rich the maximum divident of Imperialism process there were two world wars were fought which not only leads to precious loss of lives but also large scale problem of Human right violation etc.

    After getting an Independence The India adopted the mixed form of economic structures to meet the needs of it people, below are the some of the pros and cons with the process of Industrial development in India:

    1. It helped in making the India self sufficient for various needs by focusing initially on Large scale Industrial developement.
    2. Helped in Increasing the rate of employment which reduced the menace of unemployment and ultimately the vicious cycle of Poverty.
    3. Increase in Literacy Rate which was very low in initial phase of Independence.
    4. Increase in much needed FDI and foreign currency reserve etc.

    1. Created various labour problem.
    2. Concentration of Industries in specific regions which leads to the concentration of wealth in specific region.
    3. Due to uneven development there is still presence of problems of Malnutrition, Illiteracy, Unemployment and Poverty.
    4. Leads to tremendous growth in population.
    5. Unplanned growth of cities leads to the problem of slums which leads to various problem of Health and Law and order situation .
    6. Decrease in forest cover which leads to various environmental and ecological Problems etc.

    In Order to Develop Inclusively and sustainably there is urgent need of planning and deliberation which will not only help in overcoming the problem of illiteracy,Unemployment and Poverty but will also helped in achieving the goal of “Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat”.

    • http://shashidthakur23.blog.com Shashi Thakur

      Last part of the answer is good. (present situation in India part). Though I’ll cut short the answer to maintain word limit. 1st and 2nd part are good i.e all the relevant points are present. Good Answer. (Word limit is still a concern and should be focussed).

      • DVM

        Will try to work hard on word limit….thanks 4 the suggestion….

        • http://shashidthakur23.blog.com Shashi Thakur


  • niks’ fixes

    The Industrial Revolution first occurred in England due to following reasons:
    1. Easy availability of coal – The mines were almost at the ground level and it was very easy to harness that power
    2. The steam engine – Invention of steam engine and easy availability of coal worked in total synergy to help England extract large amounts of fuel for its industry.
    3. Colonies as markets – England was the largest colonial power at that time. The cheap consumer goods produced there could be exported to its large colonies like India which were an endless market and hence, the industry could grow at an astronomical pace.

    The average wages of a worker in England was around 11 euros while it was less than 2 euros in India. Hence, the people of England had a lot of money to spend. Large industries like cotton mills required large number of workers so there was very less unemployment. The population was also very low in density due to plague epidemic in the last century before Industrial Revolution began. However, due to privatisation of land which had recently started, large swathes of workers became landless and had no property.Therefore, they did not have voting power.

    In India today, universal suffrage guarantees political equality of every citizen. However, the wages of an Indian village worker are only enough upto subsistence levels. While in England of that time, the wages were the highest in the world, we are not close enough to even the worldwide average. There is widespread poverty and direct as well as hidden unemployment. India and its citizens are not the beneficiary of the trade that the industry is doing. They are the victims of flawed international taxation policies, which benefit developed countries, and leave very little for them in front of these market forces.

    To sum up, the Industrial Revolution did bring modes of transport other than horses and sailing ships and a lot of benefits to England first and the whole developed world later. However, India and the developing world is largely yet to taste the fruits of prosperity that comes with such a revolution.