16th February, 2016 (MAINS)

TODAYs ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE FROM GS-I

Q1. Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so? [12.5marks/2015/GS-1] 200 words.

Please write answer in the comments section.

  • Dev Verma

    1. Mumbai and Kolkata are not land locked cities. The sea breezes bring in lot of fresh unpolluted air to dilute the pollutant concentrations.
    2. Delhi is in the Indo-Gangetic plains which is abundant in fine alluvial soil. The resuspension of this soil is easy by wind and traffic resuspension.
    3. Presence of desert nearby Delhi possesses factors facilitating hygroscopic material formation.
    4. Mumbai and Kolkata do not receive chilled air in December/January months which results into smog.
    5. Delhi consists of more number of industries (small scale and large scale combined) than any other city in India.
    6. Delhi is sandwiched between states like Haryana and UP. These states have cities like Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, and Panipat which are highly industrialised.
    7. Farmers of Haryana and UP burn the agro husk from crop which is largest source of pollution of below particulate matter 2.5.
    8. Density of vehicles is more in Delhi as compared to Kolkata and Mumbai.
    9. While Mumbai and Kolkata [being at the ends] are often terminal points when it comes to vehicular traffic, Delhi gets not just terminal traffic, but also transit traffic. A truck heading between Punjab and Uttar Pradesh often transits through Delhi.
    10. Delhi has comparatively poor solid waste management and disposal.

    • http://shashidthakur.com/ Shashi Thakur

      good arrangement of points.

  • Umesh Sachin

    1. Population density
    Air pollution is mostly caused by people and the more people live together in a particular area the higher the air pollution generally is. If people are spread more evenly over an area, so is the pollution which means that overall pollution levels are lower.
    Both China and India have several cities in the top 20 of largest cities in the world sorted by population-density, for example Mumbai, Kolkata, Shenzen, Delhi and Beijing. We can see that Delhi and Beijing have a similar density, but Delhi has a much bigger population so more air pollution is to be expected.
    2. Number of cars
    Traffic is a notorious contributor to air pollution, especially if we are measuring particulates, which the WHO study did. Common sources are exhaust fumes from fossil-fuel engines and dust from unpaved roads.
    Based solely on population density we would expect Mumbai or Kolkata to be the most polluting cities, but Delhi has by far the most vehicles of all cities in India: 7.35 million in 2012 which is about 2.5 times more than Mumbai (source). Beijing has an estimated 5 million cars in 2011 (source), Shenzhen about 3 million (source)
    3. Income
    Areas with relatively low-income usually have more air pollution. This has to do with not being able to afford cleaner alternatives or filtering systems for manufacturing, travel and energy production.
    Per capita GDP in Delhi is Rs. 210,000 (source), which is about USD 3,150
    Per capita GDP in Mumbai is Rs. 486,000 (USD 7,300) (source)
    Per capita GDP in Beijing is CNY 99,214 (USD 16,150) (source)
    Per capita GDP in Shenzhen is CNY 149,500 (USD 24,084) (source)
    4. Local conditions
    Local conditions can play an important role, for example coastal cities usually have lower pollution levels compared to more in-land cities due to more windy weather (pollution is blown away) and the fact that there are less nearby polluters (no industry on the water).
    5. Air pollution laws
    Air pollution laws and regulations are stricter and better enforced in the US and China than they are in India.

    • http://shashidthakur.com/ Shashi Thakur

      please try to maintain word limit. and stick to relevant points. Beijing info was not required.

  • Karan Bendekar

    hello i am writing the answer first time…

    Delhi is more polluted than kolkata and mumbai…however the reasons for mumbai and kolkat for less polluted are

    1) mumbai and kolkata are both have beaches attached to their land which can be used for transport.so it reduces the dependency on road and railway transport.

    2) due to beaches these cities get unpolluted fresh air which balances the pollution made inside the city

    3) mumbai is accumulated with most of IT industries and film industry so less industries and factories which are the main cause of pollution.

    4) both the cities are connected to other states borders so dont come in between of transport of other states.

    Reasons for delhi to be more polluted than mumbai and kolkata are

    1) its a city of many small and large industries causes vast pollution.

    2) less car parking arrangements so it slower the movement of traffic which cause pollution.

    3)it comes in between transport of uttar pradesh and haryana which gives pollution by means of road transport.

    4) population and number of vehicles are higher in delhi compared to kolkata and mumbai which are one of the most important cause of pollution menace.

  • karan

    Delhi is more polluted than kolkata and mumbai…however the reasons for mumbai and kolkat for less polluted are

    1) mumbai and kolkata are both have beaches attached to their land which can be used for transport.so it reduces the dependency on road and railway transport.

    2) due to beaches these cities get unpolluted fresh air which balances the pollution made inside the city

    3) mumbai is accumuluted with most of IT industries and film industry so less industries and factories which are the main cause of pollution.

    4) both the cities are not connected to other states borders so dont come in between of transport of other states.

    Reasons for delhi to be more polluted than mumbai and kolkata are

    1) its a city of many small and large industries causes vast air pollution.

    2) less car parking arrangements so it slowers the movement of traffic which cause pollution.

    3)it comes in between transport of uttar pradesh and haryana which gives pollution by means of road transport.

    4) population and number of vehicles are higher in delhi compared to kolkata and mumbai.which are one of the most inportant cause of pollution menace..

    • http://shashidthakur.com/ Shashi Thakur

      @karanias2016:disqus : good answer with use of simple words.