17th December, 2015 (MAINS)

TODAYs ANSWER WRITING CHALLENGE FROM GS-I

Q1. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence. [10 marks/2014/GS-1] 150 words.

Please write answer in the comments section.

  • Surabhi Gupta

    GS1 question solved:
    Q1. Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence.
    Ans: The various facets of economic policies of the British in India from mid-eighteenth century till independence can be examined critically as follows:
    1. The British destroyed the handicraft industry and introduced new systems and tenures and policies of revenue administration.
    2. The tax policies of British were very regressive and exploitative. British had implemented new policies of revenue collection in the form of Permanent Settlement, Mahalwari Settlement and Ryotwari Settlement.
    3. British took interest in agriculture in the form of plantation of cash crops like tea, indigo, cotton etc.
    4. They did not work in any way for the upliftment of irrigational or agricultural infrastructure.
    5. Industries were established with foreign capitals to serve the purpose of Britain. Traditional art and handicraft were destroyed.
    6. Eventually, British laid the foundation of modern industries in India.
    7. It laid down an extensive network of railways which today serves as the lifeline of the nation.
    8. They can also be credited for establishing the modern credit system.
    9. Whatever investment they made, it was done with an eye on meeting their ends.
    10. British dictated the terms of international trade for India and often restricted the Indian traders to transact with nations that were hostile to Britain.
    11. Britain used Indian economy as an add-on to follow the colonial mission abroad.

    • http://shashidthakur23.blog.com Shashi Thakur

      keep it up..

      • Surabhi Gupta

        tnx………..

    • Ashi Agarwal

      good answer

    • Preeti Fci

      Few additional points from old NCERT (Modern India – Bipan Chandra)
      1. India was forced to import manufactured goods from Britain and export only raw material.
      2. British conquest also led to the deindustrialisatton of the country and increased dependence of the people on agriculture.
      3. There was a sudden and quick collapse of the urban handicrafts which had for centuries made India’s name a byword in the markets of the entire civilised world. This collapse was caused largely by competition with the cheaper imported machine-goods from Britain.
      4. Indian goods made with primitive techniques could not compete with goods produced on a mass scale by powerful steam-operated machines.
      5. The oppression practised by the East India Company and its servants on the craftsmen of Bengal during the second half of the 18th century, forcing them to sell their goods below the market price and to hire their services below the prevailing wage, compelled a large number of them to abandon their ancestral professions
      6. The British rule also witnessed the ruin of most of the old zamindars in Bengal and Madras.
      7. The net result of British economic policies, was the prevalence of extreme poverty among its people.

      • http://shashidthakur23.blog.com Shashi Thakur

        ncert has good points…

        • Preeti Fci

          thank u.