20th February, 2016 (MAINS)


Q1. India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity. [12.5marks/2015/GS-1] 200 words.

Please write answer in the comments section.

  • Aniruddh Shrivastava

    Despite of being a fresh water resource, India is still facing water scarcity problem. Water scarcity problem is mostly man made and due to gradually growing population and mismanagement of water resources. Some of the basic reason behind this are:

    1. Urbanization and rapidly growing population is a crucial factor. However the quality of water is deteriorating, the quantity of water is always constant on earth. So the ratio of water an individual gets is dwindling.

    2.Even after urbanization and infrastructural development,There is a lack of proper drainage and sewerage system. Around 70% of waste water is untreated and get disposed in traditional sources of water,lakes,rivers and ponds.There is not even a single city in India which can cover entire population of the city in its drainage system.

    3. Industrialization too has affected on a large scale. Effluents, pollutants, chemicals which are non-biodegradable are released from a number of Textile,Electroplating industries, thermal power plants,paper mills has been a reason of water resource devastation.

    4. Agricultural runoff and improper agricultural practices such as traces of fertilizers and pesticides are wasted into the nearest water-bodies . .Entry of such agricultural inputs is diffused throughout the river basin.

    5. Some other factors are also responsible for water scarcity in India, such as withdrawal of water by irrigation canals before rivers reach plain areas(Especially Himalayan Rivers), denying water to flow in the river downstream(Cauvery river dispute).

    • http://shashidthakur.com/ Shashi Thakur

      @aniruddhshrivastava:disqus: great answer. every point has different reason and explained concisely.