28th December, 2016 (MAINS)


Q1. The significance of counter-urbanisation in the improvement of metropolitan cities in India. [12marks/2010/GS-1] 150 words.

Please write answer in the comments section.

  • Prakhar Verma

    Counter-urbanization refers to the social and demographic change associated with the movement of people from urban to rural areas. It leads to the shrinking of cities because of the various push and pull factors causing the migration.
    The present trend of urbanization in India has resulted in the overcrowding of cities leading to social and environmental problems alongwith developmental issues.
    => Job creation has not kept pace with the increase in population leading to rise in low income, informal job sector.
    => Urbanization resulted in a high cost of living which led to proliferation of informal settlements.
    => Absence of basic civic amenities like clean water, sanitation facilities, etc.
    => Haphazard city growth creates issues related to sustainable development.
    Counter-urbanization need to be given an impetus by increasing the commercial viability of agricultural activities and promoting other non-agricultural economic activities.
    => Giving a push to MSME sector in rural areas and small towns having connectivity with metropolitan centres can revive the domestic manufacturing domain.
    => With the deployment of digital infrastructure in rural areas like Optical Fiber Cable Network, Common Services Center, etc, individuals are incentivized to stay and carry out any economic activity from home.
    => These rural clusters can be integrated in the industrial corridors to complete the backward and forward linkages. Subsequently, development of smart cities and smart villages concurrently will provide for a sustainable growth.
    Counter-urbanization can help in tackling urban sprawling, densification of cities, spatial inequality in development and will provide for better living conditions both at the rural and urban level.